What is a woman’s role in the church? Many teach that the Scriptures endorse a silent and subservient while the men lead. As the letter to the Romans closes, Shaul/Paul’s final greetings reveal a marvelous hermeneutic truth: leadership in the home and in the congregation is appointed by Yahuwah and His annointing does not recognize gender preference.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective
– Chapter 16 –
Romans 16:1 I commend to you Phoebe our Yisraelite sister, who is a deacon of the congregation that is at Cenchrea:
Phoebe a diakonos.
Romans 16:2 That you receive her in vuvh, as becomes Yisraelite kidushim, and that you assist her in whatever business she has need of: for she has been a great help to many, and to myself also.
She was more like a trusted emissary or ambassador.
She was likely a scattered Israelite/gentile because her name’s associated with Phoebus; from the mythology of Apollos.
Phoebe a deacon of the assembly at Cenchrea, one of the two seaports of Corinth.
Deacon not deaconess, diakonos is masculine not feminine form.
Romans 16:3 Greet Priscilla and Aqulas my helpers in Moshiach gauvh:
Romans 16:4 Who have for my chayim laid down their own necks: for whom not only I give hodu, but also all the congregations of the Yisraelite nations.
Pricilla and Aquilla would have been among those Jews that were expelled from Rome under the Edict of Claudius and worked with Paul in Corinth and Ephesus:
Acts 18:1 After these things, Paul left Athens and went to Corinth.
There he found a Jewish man named Aquila—a native of Pontus having recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all Jewish people to leave Rome.
A learned Alexandrian Jew who had the revelation of the Melchitzedik transference from John to Yahusha, but was less familiar with other subjects was instructed by Priscilla and Aquilla!Click here to Read More
Acts 18:24 Now a Jewish man named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, came to Ephesus. He was a learned man, well versed in the Scriptures. 25 He had been instructed in the way of the Lord. With a fervent spirit, he was speaking and teaching accurately the facts about Yeshua—while only being acquainted with the immersion of John. 26 This man began speaking out boldly in the synagogue. But when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained the way of God more accurately. 27 When Apollos wanted to cross over to Achaia, the brothers encouraged him and wrote to the disciples to welcome him. Upon arrival, he greatly helped those who by grace had believed.28 For he powerfully refuted the Jewish people in public, demonstrating through the Scriptures that the Messiah was Yeshua.
Priscilla is mentioned before her husband Aquila most probably due to her being converted before him, maybe even leading him to faith.
The RTNE has v.4 : ‘but also all the congregations of the Yisraelite nations.’
Other translations have; ‘the churches of the gentiles.’
Some will try and use this verse to separate Jewish and gentile congregations; like there’s a separate gentile church, void of Jews, void of anything Jewish like the Shabbat, Feasts and dietary commandments, but that takes the text out of the context of Yahusha’s call to regather Israel and Paul’s implementation of it!
The point being, that non-Jewish believers get to be part of the same community as Jewish believers!
Romans 16:5 Likewise greet the congregation that is in their bayit. Greet my well beloved Epainetos, who is the bikkurim of Achayah to the Moshiach.
Romans 16:6 Greet Miryam, who worked very hard for us.
Romans 16:7 Greet Andronikos and Junia/Iounias, my relatives, and my fellow prisoners, who are of note among the shlichim, who also were in Moshiach before me.
Junia/Iounia a woman not Junias a man!
Old time scholars considered this figure to be Junias; a male! Today, almost all are in agreement with Junia; a female.
Outstanding among the apostles, i.e. she was an apostle. Andronikos was also a woman.
Junias didn’t exist before medieval times.
Luke 8:3 Joanna/Iōanna, the wife of Kuza, Herod’s finance minister; Susanna; and many others—were supporting them out of their own resources.
Iōanna/Joanna could very likely be Iounias/Junia of Rom 16:7, early Jews who were out having contact within the dispersion – the Hellenized world; often took on Latin names that sounded like their Jewish ones.
Romans 16:8 Greet Amplias my beloved in vuvh.
Romans 16:9 Greet Urbanos, our helper in the Moshiach, and Stachus my beloved.
Ampilas is actually Latin: Ampliatus, a common slave name. Urbanos and Stachus are also common slave names.
Romans 16:10 Greet Apelles approved in the Moshiach. Greet those who are of Aristobulos’ bayit.
Aristobulous is the grandson of Herod the Great and the brother of Herod Agrippa.
Romans 16:11 Greet Herodion my relative. Greet them that are of the bayit of Narkissus, who are in vuvh.
Heordian who’s come to faith, and the household of Narkissus; Narrkissus was a close aid to Emperor Claudius and was killed by the Emperors assassins for fear that he’d influence his whole household just as Aristobyulous had his. Of course Roman history has Narkissus “committing suicide.”
Romans 16:12 Greet Truphanyah and Truphosa, who labor in vuvh. Greet the beloved Persis, who labored much in vuvh.
More female slaves and a Persian woman!
Romans 16:13 Greet Rufus chosen in vuvh, and his eema and mine.
Rufas; the son of Simon of Cyrene; his household likely were fleeing Judea due to persecution and looking for refuge amongst the Roman community.
Mark 15.21: And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his crossbeam.
Romans 16:14 Greet Asugritos, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the Yisraelite brothers, who are with them.
Romans 16:15 Greet Philologos, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olumpas, and all the Yisraelite kidushim that are with them.
More from the imperial household, freed slave women and men. Julia was a name found in the Roman records of a slave woman from the imperial household. We’re getting people abdicating……priests, kings, princes, princess, governors!
People stemming from nobility and the ruling class, but the majority are freed slaves.
Romans 16:16 Greet one another with a kadosh kiss. The Yisraelite congregations of the Moshiach greet you.
Romans 16:17 Now I beg you, Yisraelite brothers, mark those who cause divisions and stumbling contrary to the doctrine that you have learned; and avoid them.
Romans 16:18 For they that are such serve not our Savior gauvh ha Moshiach, but their own belly; and by tov words and convincing speeches deceive the levavot of the simple.
Romans 16:19 For your obedience is reported to all men. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise to that which is tov, but simple concerning evil.
Romans 16:20 And the tvkt of shalom shall bruise s.a.tan under your feet shortly. The unmerited favor of our Savior gauvh ha Moshiach be with you.
Romans 16:21 Timtheous my fellow worker and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my relatives, greet you.
Romans 16:22 I Tertius, who wrote this letter, greet you in vuvh.
Loukios’; ‘Lucius’ is a derivative of Luke.
Romans 16:23 Gaios my host, and the whole congregation, greets you. Erastos the treasurer of the city greets you, and Quartus a Yisraelite brother. [24 ‘The unmerited favor of our Savior gauvh ha Moshiach be with you all.’]
Though consistent with what Paul’s writing v.24 is a monk, monking with the text – it’s inauthentic and not included in most notable translations, except for a footnote.
Romans 16:25 Now to Him that is able to establish you according to my Besorah, and the proclaiming of gauvh ha Moshiach, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept hidden since the olam hazeh began,
Romans 16:26 But now is made manifest, by the Keetvay HaKadosh of the neviim, according to the commandment of the everlasting tvkt, made known to all nations for the obedience of the emunah:
Romans 16:27 To vuvh the only wise One, be tifereth through gauvh ha Moshiach le-olam-va-ed. Amein.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 9 – Part 2
Are the concepts of grace and mercy only found in the New Testament? Shaul/Paul ties into the linguistic connection of mercy to corporate Israel and the biblical prophecy made by Hoshea/Hosea. Israel will be regathered and united under a Melchizedek High Priest, Yahusha!
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 12 • Part 2
Have you come into the community? Despite current popular doctrines, a walk of faith is not simply “me and Jesus”. Shaul/Paul sides with Yahusha in gathering believers together for corporate unity under Messiah. Division becomes a byproduct of a person being called into the Israel of Elohim.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 8 – Part 3
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 11 – Part 2
Do you bear the Root, or is the Root bearing you? What Yahuwah planted one Israel that became two nations through division and eventually both nations were laid bare before all the nations, as branches both natural and unnatural or cultivated and uncultivated were cut off. Regardless of what type of branch we are, if we are not connected to the root of that tree which is Messiah, we wither and die.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 7
How can an adulteress bride return to her husband? Shaul/Paul uses his intimate knowledge of Torah to help the audience awaken to the reality of redemption through Yahusha. If we interpret the verses without a proper knowledge of Torah, we run the risk of creating a false dichotomy between law and grace.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 15
Who has been elevated to the priesthood? Shaul/Paul harkens back to language and themes used in Yeshayahu/Isaiah to show that establish the completion of prophecy through Yahusha. Shaul/Paul not only demonstrates that through Messianic Reformation, the Melchizedek Priesthood was established and the fullness of the Gentiles has come in to serve Yahuwah.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 9 – Part 1
How should we define biblical Israel? Shaul/Paul draws some distinctions between a physical and spiritual Israel, in order to demonstrate the necessity of an individual to belong to both, to be a fully regenerated Israelite.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 11 – Part 1
Who are the people of Yah? Shaul/Paul understood that there was a seamless priestly garment that was a covering for all of Israel. One Messiah, One Covenant, One People. Yahuwah will prune and graft in, but will always be focused on the branches of Isreal, rooted in Yahusha.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – Chapter 10
Does your zealousness for the Father and His Torah cause you to lose discernment when it comes to the Son? On its own, Torah will not lead us to total righteousness. Only covenant relationship through Yahusha will allow us to enter into forensic righteousness before Yahuwah.
Romans from a Torah Covenant Perspective – “All about the Ruach/Spirit”
The Holy Spirit herself doth testify? We take a pause in our study of Romans to reflect on verses 16 and 17 in the eighth chapter to focus specifically on the Ruach Ha Kodesh/Holy Spirit. Join us as we test the traditional understandings of the nature of the Ruach/Spirit against the whole of Scripture and the truth of the text.